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With Bluetooth up to eight units may be wirelessly connected in a micro network. The range is usually up to 10 meters (33 ft). This version is called Pico-Bluetooth and only takes up to 1 mW. Also Mega-Bluetooth with a range of up to 100 meters (330 ft) and a sending power of up to 100  mW is possible. The wireless standard uses the licence free 2,4GHz band. The utilized hardware is very small and consumes very few energy, ideal premises for PDAs and cellular phones. Other common devices of our everyday life support this standard, too. The refridgerator tells the PDA that there is no more milk for example. The communication is build up on a voice and a data channel. The voice channel supports with 64 Kbit/s ISDN speed and the data channel receives a maximum of 721 Kbit/s and sends up to 56,6Kbit/s. Thus the cellular phone may rest in the jacket while using it.

According to their power Bluetooth devices are classified as follows:


Photo Ericsson T39m

The Ericsson >T39m and >R520m were the first phones which featured Bluetooth.

The name of this technology was taken from king Harald Blåtand which unified Danmark and Norway in the 10th Century.

Bluetooth is a very flexible standard. As different applications have different needs theses were summarized in so called profiles which are fixed in the Bluetooth standard. Not all units support all profiles so one has to check the interoperability before buying them. For example headsets usually support only the Headset Profile. In the following table the existing profiles are summarized. Clicking the arrow at the beginning of each line shows details about the profile.

Bluetooth Profiles

Profile Short Usage Sample Products
Advanced Audio Distribution
A2DP Audiotransfer Audioplayer, Headphones, Micro
The Advanced Audio Distribution Profile supports the transmission of stereo audio data between two devices, e.g. between a pc and a headset. There are two different roles within this profile - one unit is the source (A2DP-SRC) and the other one the sink (A2DP-SNK).
Audio Video Remote Control
AVRCP Audio/Video Remote Control PC, VCR, DVD-Player
The Audio Video Remote Control Profile enables mobile Bluetooth devices to act as a remote control for audio- or video devices. Instead of a simple remote control unit the controler may also be a pc, mobile phone or pda. There are two different roles within this profile - one unit is the controler (AVRCP-CT) and the other one the target (AVRCP-TG).
Basic Imaging
BIP Image transfer Camera, PC, Scanner
The Basic Imaging Profile supports the transmission of graphics in the JPEG format. By using this profile e.g. cameras could transfer photos to a computer or printer. There ar six roles in this profile. If a camera uses the role BIP-ImagePush it can actively control the transfer of photos to another Bluetooth device. If the other Bluetooth device should control the transmission the role BIP-ImagePull has to be used. By using the role BIP-AutoArchive a camera can initiate the automatic archiving of pictures by another Bluetooth device. To control printing the role BIP-AdvImagePrint is used. To output pictures to a display the role BIP-RemMonitor is used. The role BIP-RemCam supports remote activation of a camera to take a picture from another Bluetooth device.
Basic Printing
BPP Simple print jobs PDA, Printer, Phone, PC
The Basic Printing Profile supports simple print jobs like printing of e-mails or sms from mobile phones. There are two roles in this profile. The device which initiates the print job has the role BPP-SenderDev and the one that prints the role BPP-Printer.
Common ISDN Access
The Common ISDN Access Profile supports the usage of an ISDN connection which is processed by an ISDN-Access-Point. Bluetooth devices may use every ISDN feature supported by the access point. There are two roles in this profile. The device which acts as the access point is called ISDN-Gateway the one accessing the access point is called ISDN-Data Terminal.
Cordless Telephony
CTP Cordless Telephony Phones & base
The Cordless Telephony Profile suports wireless calls via Bluetooth. Like known from other wireless phones one device acts as base station while the other acts as the handset. The base station processes the calls, signals them and establishes and terminates the calls. The CTP profile supports the usage of basic features like connection management, CLIP, CLIR, tone dial, internal and external connections and three party conferences. CTP would also be usefull in mobile phones which could be used for calls in landline phone networks. There are two roles in this profile. The device which acts as the base station is called CT-Gateway while the one which acts as the handset is called CT-Terminal.
Device ID Profile
DIP Infos about Bluetooth features of device all Bluetooth devices
The Device ID Profile supports identification of Bluetooth devices beyond the limitations of the Device Class already available in Bluetooth. It enables identification of the manufacturer, product id, product version, and the version of the Device ID specification being met.
Dial-up Networking
DUN Network connection to internet Modem, PC, PDA, Phone, AP
The Dial-up Networking Profile supports Bluetooth devices to access the internet via a Bluetooth access point. A mobile phone or an ISDN or DSL access point may act as the access point and enable a notebook to access the internet. If the more powerfull CIP is availabe it should be used instead. There ar two roles in this profile. Devices which support the access to the internet are called DUN-Gateway. Devices which connect via the access point to the internet are called DUN-Data-Terminal. The Dial-up Networking Profile uses the Serial Port Profile.
Extended Service Discovery
ESDP Extended Service Discovery PDA, PC
The Extended Service Discovery Profile supports the extended discovery of other Bluetooth devices. It supports more functions than the Service Discovery Application Profile and is able to use other Bluetooth profiles like Personal Area Networking Profile to achieve this aim.
FAXP Faxing Modem, PC, Printer, FAX
The FAX Profile supports the transfer of faxes. One device connects to a network which supports the transfer of faxes and gives other Bluetooth devices access to this connection. There ar two roles in this profile. The device which is directly connected to the network is called FAXP-Gateway while the accessing device is called FAXP-Data. The Bluetooth FAX Profile uses the Serial Port Profile.
File Transfer
FTP File Transfer Phone, PDA, PC
The File Transfer Profile supports the exchange of files via TCP/IP between two computers connected to the internet. The file exchange is done between a FTP client and a FTP server. There are two roles in this profile. Devices giving access are called FT-Server while accessing devices are called FT-Client. The Bluetooth profile FTP uses the Generic Object Exchange Profile.
Generic Access
GAP Access control all Bluetooth devices
The Generic Access Profile supports different Bluetooth devices to "see" each other, to connect and to exchange information on which profiles they support. It is implemented in all Bluetooth devices.
Generic AV Distribution
GAVDP Audio-/Video transfer Audioplayer, PC, PDA
The Generic AV Distribution Profile supports the transfer of audio and video signals between devices. There are two roles in this profile. The device sending is called GAVDP-Initiator while the receiver is called GAVDP-Acceptor. To send commands regulating navigation and volume the receiver also needs to support the role GAVDP-Initiator.
Generic Object Exchange
GOEP Object exchange Phone, PDA, PC, Camera
The Generic Object Exchange Profile supports the exchange of objects like business cards or files. As the profile is usefull for a lot of purposes other profiles are based on this one, e.g. the File Transfer Profile, the Object Push Profile and the Synchronisation Profile. The Generic Object Exchange Profile itself also uses the Serial Port Profile.
Hands Free
HFP In car telephony Phone, Hands free kit
The Hands Free Profile supports the use of a car kit. It manages the communication between a car kit and a mobile phone via Bluetooth. There are two roles in this profile. The car kit is called HF-Unit while the mobile phone is called HF-Audio Gateway.
Hardcopy Cable Replacement
HCRP Printing Printer, Scanner, PC, FAX
The Hardcopy Cable Replacement Profile enables Bluetooth devices the output of documents to printers. The Bluetooth connection only substitutes the printer cable. Thus devices without support for printer cables are able to print documents. However with the profiles BIP and BPP there are two other profiles which are better for certain tasks of mobile devices. While the profile BPP is optimized for the output of simple dokuments BIP is optimized for the output of pictures. There are two roles in this profile. The printer is called HCRP-Server and the device that sends the print job HCRP-Client.
Health Device Profile
HDP Data exchange between health appliances ECG, pulse, fitness devices
The Health Device Profile supports the secure data exchange between medical devices like heart rate, pulse, temperature, etc.
HTTP Proxy Service
HPS Internet access via gateway Bluetooth Smart modules
The HTTP Proxy Service Profile enables Bluetooth Smart modules like sensors or actors to contact the internet via a gateway.
HSP Headset voice output Headset
The Headset Profile supports the usage of wireless headsets, e.g. sound input and output for a mobile phone or VoIP calls with a computer. The possible quality is only sufficient for speech. For music the A2DP profile is used. There are two roles in this profile. The headset is called Headset-Headset while the opposite unit is called Headset-Audio Gateway. The Headset Proile uses services of the Serial Port Profile (SPP).
Human Interface Design
HID Inputs Keyboard, Mouse, PC
The Human Interface Device Profile supports the wireless use of input devices like mice, keyboards or joysticks. There are two roles in this profile. Input devices are called HID-Client and receivers as HID-Unit.
INTP Two way communications Intercom, Walkie-Talkies
The Intercom Profile enables two Bluetooth devices to act as radio devices (walkie-talkies) by connecting both devices directly by Bluetooth instead of the cellular network.
Internet Protocol Support
IPSP Device discovery and package transport Bluetooth Smart devices
The Internet Protocol Support Profile enables ip-ready devices to find each other and let them build up connections to transport IPv6 packages.
LAN Access *
LAP Network connection via PPP Access Point
The LAN Access Profile enables Bluetooth devices to access locale networks. Since Bluetooth specification 1.2 this profile is no longer included in the Bluetooth standard. Instead only the Personal Area Networking (PAN) Profile should be used. Only very few older devices support LAP. LAP is based on the Serial Port Profile (SPP). There are two roles. Devices which support the access to networks are called LAN-Access-Point. Devices which connect via a LAN-Access-Point to a network are called LAN-Data-Terminal.
Message Access
MAP Message exchange between devices Phone, Car Kit
The Message Access Profile supports exchange of messages between devices. Mostly used for automotive use where an on-board device (typically a hands free car kit) can exchange messages with another device (typically a mobile phone).
Medical Device
MDP Data exchange between medical Appliances EGG, Fitness
The Medical Device Profile supports secure data exchange between medical appliances.
Object Push
OPP Address- & Date exchange Phone, PDA, PC
TheObject Push Profile supports the exchange of address books and calendars. It uses the Generic Object Exchange Profile (GOEP). There are two different roles. The device sending data is called OPP-Client while the receiver is called OPP-Server.
Personal Area Networking
PAN Network connection Access Point
The Personal Area Networking Profile supports networks in personal areas. Through these ad-hoc networks up to eight devices can exchange data. Devices like harddisks, internet access or printers may be used like in local networks (lan). There are two different roles. A PAN-Access Point can provide a network access to other Bluetooth devices which are called PAN users or act as a master in a PAN group. This network can consist of up to seven PAN users via a PAN-AP. Two PAN users may otherwise connect directly with each other without a PAN-AP.
Phonebook Access
PBAP read phonebook Phone, Car Kits
The Phonebook Access Profile supports read access to a mobile phone's phonebook for other devices.
Serial Port
SPP Serial data exchange Modem, PDA, PC, Phone
The Serial Port Profile supports serieal connections between two Bluetooth devices. The SPP-Profil may be used for data exchange between computers and mobile phones. The Dial-up Networking Profile (DUN), the Fax Profile (FAXP) and the Headset Profile are based on SPP. There are two different roles. The device requesting a serial connection is called SerialDev-A while the other device is called SerialDev-B.
Service Discovery Application
SDAP Discovery of units all Bluetooth units
The Service Discovery Application Profile supports the discovery of other Bluetooth devices in range. It uses the Bluetooth profile GAP and identifies the supported services by using the Service Discovery Protocol (SDP). Requesting devices are called SDAP-Client while answering devices are called SDAP-Server. Most devices support both roles. Devices which do not request connections on their own do only work as SDAP-Server.
SIM Access
SAP Read SIM cards Phone, Car Kits
The SIM Access Profile supports the access to SIM cards of mobile phones enabling car kits to use their own sender/receiver unit with external antenna. The unit accessing the SIM card is called SIM Access Client. The unit with the card reader is called SIM Access Server.
SP Synchronisation Phone, PDA, PC
The Synchronisation Profile supports the synchronisation of data. It also needs the Generic Object Exchange Profile (GOEP). There are two different roles. The controling device is called Sync-Client while the controlled device is called Sync-Server.
Synchronous Connection-Oriented link
SCO Access to headset Phone, Headset
The Synchronous Connection-Oriented Link Profile supports access to microphone and speaker of headsets.

* Profile no longer included since Bluetooth 1.2


The Standard was developed as follows:


Recommended Links

>Handy Finder with option to search for Bluetooth and its protocols SAP & A2DP


>Official Bluetooth Site


>Bluetooth 1.2 Specifications


>Bluetooth 2.0 Specifications


>Bluetooth 2.1 Specifications


>Bluetooth 3.0 Specifications


>Bluetooth 4.0 Specifications


>Bluetooth 4.1 Specifications


>Bluetooth 4.2 Specifications


>Bluetooth 5.0 Specifications


>Bluetooth 5.1 Specifications


>Bluetooth 5.2 Specifications


>Bluetooth 5.3 Specifications


>Bluetooth 5.4 Specifications


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