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Glossary

5G

This fifth generation cellular standard (5G) allows a data transfer rate of up to 20 Gbit/s. It is a successor of the 4G standard LTE. The data transfer is processed only packet based. The latency (delay between devices) is below 1 ms.

Autofocus

Camera technique where a selected point or area is focussed.

Airplay

Proprietary wireless streaming protocol created by Apple. Herewith the audiovisual output of one device may be shown on another, e.g. a movie on an iPhone on an Apple TV.

Android

Android is an operating system for smartphones and tablet computers which is developed by the Open Handset Alliance and based on Linux and Java.

Android Go

Android Go is an Android variant that offers fast and jerk-free use even with a weak processor and little memory. For this purpose, the operating system was slimmed down and the Google services rewritten, whereby many functions were outsourced to the cloud.

Android One

Android One is an Android variant, where manufacturers guarantee updates for 2 and security patches for 3 years, a native Android interface with all Google services and a fast, jerk-free interface.

ANT+

With ANT+ devices may be wirelessly connected. It is primarily designed for collection and transfer of sensor data. The main areas of operation are sport, wellness and home health.

A2DP

Advanced Audio Distribution Profil

This Bluetooth profile supports the transmission of stereo music in good quality to headphones or speakers.

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AVRCP

Advanced Audio Distribution Profile
This Bluetooth profile enables Bluetooth devices to act as a remote control for audio- or video devices.

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BeiDou


Chinese positioning system which will finally be based on 35 satellites circling around earth sending signals. These are received by receivers which calculate the position and enabling navigation systems to work.

Blackberry OS

Blackberry OS is an operating system for smartphones and tablet computers which is developed by Blackberry (formerly Research in Motion). Besides own apps Android apps may be installed since version 10.3 from the Amazon Appstore. Apps for the older Blackberry OS up to version 7.1 are incompatible to the current operating system.

Bluetooth

With Bluetooth devices may be wirelessly connected. The range is normally up to 10 meters. With Bluetooth one may for example connect mobile phones with headsets, stereo headphones, car kits or keyboards.

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Brew

Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless
BREW is an operating system for mobile phones which is developed by Qualcomm.

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CAPTCHA

Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart
Used to determine whether or not the user is human. Often used to determine who entered form entries as computers are often used for fraud.

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access 2000
This third generation cellular standard (3G) is used in the US and parts of Asia and Africa. It allows a data transfer rate of up to 3.1 Mbit/s.

CMS

Content Management System
Software which is used to maintain a website. Content can be created or modified. Often a role concept is integrated which gives different rights to different users (e. g. administrator, editor, author).

DCS

Digital Communication System
Worldwide digital cellular standard primary used for speech but also for relative slow data. In Europe 1800 MHz is used and in America 1900 MHz. In Germany e-plus & o2 started with 1800 MHz and Telekom & vodafone with 900 MHz. Meanwhile all German cellular network operators use both frequencies.

DMB

Digital Media Broadcast
Transmission standard for mobile television.

Dual-Camera

Smartphones with two cameras may either use them to offer different focal width or depth information through the second camera. Thus the focus in the picture may be changed afterwards.

DVB-H

Digital Video Broadcast Handheld
Transmission standard for mobile television optimized for movies in low resolution to be used on displays of mobile phones.

DVB-T

Digital Video Broadcast Terrestrial
Transmission standard for digital television optimized for movies in high resolution optimized for movies in high resolution to be used on normal tv sets.

EDGE

Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution
This data transmission standard is based on GPRS and allows a data transfer rate of up to 236,8 kbit/s downlink and up to 118.4 Kbit/s uplink. EDGE represents the last possible level of extension for existing GSM networks.

EMS

Enhanced Message Service
was developed by Alcatel, Ericsson, Motorola and Siemens based on SMS. An open specification supports the data exchange between mobile phones from different brands also supporting the originally only on Nokia phones known picture and ringtone transfer.

EVS

Enhanced Voice Services
With this successor of HD Voice it's possible to place calls in HiFi quality. The transmission supports the full 20 kHz range hearable by the human ear. This technique only works using mobile phones equipped with it while using LTE or Wi-Fi Calling.

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Firefox OS

Firefox OS is an operating system for smartphones and tablet computers which is developed by the Mozilla Corporation and based on Linux. The aim is to use web techniques (HTML, CSS and JavaScript) for the user interface and apps to provide an open system.

Fire OS

Fire OS is an operating system for smartphones and tablet computers which is developed by Amazon and based Android. Android apps may be installed from the Amazon Appstore.

Force Touch

Force Touch is an extension of multitouch where also the pressure is considered. Thus different actions are possible for soft touch or stronger pressure. Force Touch was first used nearly at the same time by Huawei in the Mate S and Apple in the iPhone 6s. Apple calls it 3D Touch.

GeoTags

When mobile phones are equiped with camera and GPS they can write the geographical position invisibly into the picture while taking it. This information is called GeoTags.

GPRS

General Packet Radio Service
With this data transmission standard data is split in packages and transferred separately. At the recipient they are rejoined. Simultaneous transfer of data and speech is possible. The data transfer rate is up to 171,2 Kbit/s. The possible top speed is depending on the number of used channels. Here uplink and downlink channels may differ with 14,4kbps each. The more channels a phone supports the faster the data transfer.

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Galileo


A European positioning system based on 30 satellites circling around earth in a height of 14,450 miles sending signals. These are received by receivers which calculate the position and enabling Galileo navigation systems to work. The accuracy is 13 feet horizontal and 26 feet vertical. Galileo can be used worldwide by anyone without paying licence fees.

GPS

Global Positioning System
A positioning system based on 30 satellites circling around earth in a height of 12,500 miles sending signals. These are received by GPS receivers which calculate the position and enabling GPS navigation systems to work. The accuracy is 33 feet horizontal and 115 feet vertical. GPS can be used worldwide by anyone without paying licence fees.

GLONASS

GLObalnaja NAwigazionnaja Sputnikowaja Sistema
A positioning system based on 30 satellites circling around earth in a height of 11,900 miles sending signals. These are received by GLONASS receivers which calculate the position and enabling GLONASS navigation systems to work. GPS can be used worldwide by anyone without paying licence fees.

GSM

Global System for Mobile Communication
Worldwide digital cellular standard primary used for speech but also for relative slow data. In Europe frequencies 900 and 1800 MHz are used and in America 850 and 1900 MHz. In Germany Telekom & vodafone started with 900 MHz and e-plus & o2 with 1800 MHz. Meanwhile all German cellular network operators use both frequencies.

HD Voice

A more common name for the AMR-WB (Adaptive Multirate Wide Band) codec which is based on the transfer standard G.722. Using it one can place calls in better audio quality. After compression the initially 64 kbit/s big data rate is compressed between 6,6 and 23,85 kbit/s. This technique only works using mobile phones equipped with it while using UMTS.

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Hotspot

Hotspots are wireless internet access points. While public hotspots offer their services permanently to everyone commonly against payment some mobile phone also support the possibility to create a temporary hotspot. A notebook or tablet can connect to the internet via wlan by using this hotspot. Mobile phones with Android offer this since version 2.2.

HSCSD

High Speed Circuit Switched Data
This data transmission standard combines several channels and thus allows higher data rates which are dependant from the number of used channels. Standard is 4 timeslots with 14.4 KBit/s each near the transmitter. If the distance gets higher the data rate is reduced to 9.6 KBit/s. The mobile network operator is able to limit the amount of available timeslots per trasmitter. Having a good reception and 4 timeslots allows 57.6 KBit/s. HSCSD is supported in Germany by Vodafone and e-plus.

HSDPA

High Speed Downlink Packet Access
This data transmission standard is based on UMTS and allows a downlink data rate of 3.6 Mbit/s in the beginning and up to 14.4 MBit/s in the final development.

HSPA

High Speed Packet Access
This data transmission standard is based on UMTS. It allows a downlink data rate of up to 14.4 MBit/s and up to 5.8 MBit/s in uplink. It works with multiple antennas.

HSPA+

High Speed Packet Access Plus
This data transmission standard is based on UMTS and is an advanced version of HSPA. It allows a downlink data rate of 28 MBit/s and 11 MBit/s in uplink. It works with multiple antennas. With it a continued transformation of 3rd generation mobile networks to 4th generation with Long Term Evolution (LTE) is possible.

HSUPA

High Speed Uplink Packet Access
This data transmission standard is based on UMTS and allows an uplink data rate of 1.45 Mbit/s in the beginning and up to 5.8 MBit/s in the final development.

i-mode

This technique enables the display of internet content like text, graphics, videos & sound on mobile devices. The language to describe the content is called CHTML and is a reduced variant of HTML. i-mode pages are optimized for the small displays of mobile phones. The Service was developed 1999 in Japan by NTT Docomo and offered in Germany from 2002-2008 by e-plus. Today advanced mobile phones and smartphones have made i-mode more or less irrelevant outside Japan.

Inmarsat

The worldwide satellite comunication system consists of 12 geostationary satellites. Communication is possible from every point on the earth surface with exception of the polar regions.

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iOS

iOS is an operating system which is developed by Apple for their own mobile devices (iPhone, iPad & iPod). It was called iPhone OS prior to version 4 and supports multitasking. It is expandable by hundredthousands of applications ("Apps").

IP52

Ingress Protection 52
The IP protection class indicates, how electrical devices are protected against impurities. The protection class consists of two digits. The first indicates protection against foreign particles and the second protection against water. IP 52 means protection against dust deposit and against dripping water when tilted up to 15°.

IP54

Ingress Protection 54
The IP protection class indicates, how electrical devices are protected against impurities. The protection class consists of two digits. The first indicates protection against foreign particles and the second protection against water. IP 54 means protection against dust deposit and against splash water.

IP55

Ingress Protection 55
The IP protection class indicates, how electrical devices are protected against impurities. The protection class consists of two digits. The first indicates protection against foreign particles and the second protection against water. IP 55 means protection against dust deposit and against water jets.

IP56

Ingress Protection 56
The IP protection class indicates, how electrical devices are protected against impurities. The protection class consists of two digits. The first indicates protection against foreign particles and the second protection against water. IP 56 means protection against dust deposit and against powerful water jets.

IP57

Ingress Protection 57
The IP protection class indicates, how electrical devices are protected against impurities. The protection class consists of two digits. The first indicates protection against foreign particles and the second protection against water. IP 57 means protection against dust deposit and against immersion.

IP58

Ingress Protection 58
The IP protection class indicates, how electrical devices are protected against impurities. The protection class consists of two digits. The first indicates protection against foreign particles and the second protection against water. IP 58 means protection against dust deposit and against permanent immersion.

IP64

Ingress Protection 64
The IP protection class indicates, how electrical devices are protected against impurities. The protection class consists of two digits. The first indicates protection against foreign particles and the second protection against water. IP 64 means dust proof and protection against splash water.

IP65

Ingress Protection 65
The IP protection class indicates, how electrical devices are protected against impurities. The protection class consists of two digits. The first indicates protection against foreign particles and the second protection against water. IP 65 means dust proof and protection against water jets.

IP66

Ingress Protection 66
The IP protection class indicates, how electrical devices are protected against impurities. The protection class consists of two digits. The first indicates protection against foreign particles and the second protection against water. IP 66 means dust proof and protection against powerful water jets.

IP67

Ingress Protection 67
The IP protection class indicates, how electrical devices are protected against impurities. The protection class consists of two digits. The first indicates protection against foreign particles and the second protection against water. IP 67 means dust proof and protection against temporary immersion.

IP68

Ingress Protection 68
The IP protection class indicates, how electrical devices are protected against impurities. The protection class consists of two digits. The first indicates protection against foreign particles and the second protection against water. IP 68 means dust proof and protection against permanent immersion.

IrDA

Infrared Data Association
1993 adopted manufacturer independent protocol for data transmission via infrared. The IrDA bus was built for a long time into mobile phones, pda's and notebooks.

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Iridium

The worldwide satellite comunication system consists of 66 active satellites on six orbits and some spare satellites. The number of satellites originally projected was 77, the atomic number of iridium. Communication with Iridium is possible from every point on the earth surface if there is clear sight to the sky.

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KaiOS

KaiOS is an operating system for mobile phones which is forked from Firefox OS. The aim is to bring support of LTE, GPS and WiFi with HTML5-based apps and longer battery life onto non-touch devices, less memory and energy consumption. Its users can also download apps from its app store.

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LineageOS

LineageOS is a free operating system for smartphones and tablets. It is based on Android and the successor of the custom ROM CyanogenMod.

LTE

Long Term Evolution
This fourth generation cellular standard (4G) allows a data transfer rate of up to 300 Mbit/s. It is a successor of the 3G standard UMTS. The data transfer is processed only packet based. The latency (delay between mobile phone and fixed line network) is below 5ms. LTE is able to transfer existing connections to other wireless technologies like WLAN & UMTS (handover). In Germany the bands 7 (2600 MHz) and 20 (800 MHz) are used while additionally band 3 (1800 MHz) is only used by Telekom in cities.

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LWP

Lone Worker Protection
by programmable 3D movement sensors for inclination, impact and escape alarms as well as immobility in the event of an accident or hazardous situation. In configured alarm situations, an independent personal emergency call is triggered.

Maemo

Maemo is an operating system for mobile devices which is developed by Nokia and based on Linux and Gnome.

MeeGo

MeeGo was a fusion of Nokias operating system Maemo with Intels Moblin project and now residing at the Linux Foundation. It was an open operating system for mobile devices based on Linux. In the year 2011 MeeGoo was canceled in favor of Tizen.

MIL-STD-810F

MILitary STanDard 810F
The US Army subsumes several tests of their own military equipment into this standard.

MIL-STD-810G

MILitary STanDard 810G
The US Army subsumes several tests of their own military equipment into this standard.

Miracast

Open peer-to-peer wireless screencast standard created by the Wi-Fi Alliance. Herewith the audiovisual output of one device may be shown on another, e.g. a movie on a smartphone on a tv set. By using the Wi-Fi-Direct standard an existing network is not necessary.

MMS

Multimedia Message Service
is realised basically with GPRS but the main advantages came with the introduction of UMTS. Messages with multimedia content (music, photos, short movies) may be transferred. MMS is the successor of EMS

MultiSIM

Mobile phones equiped with multiple receivers and SIM card readers. Thus one can be available with multiple SIM cards at the same time. This can be handy to use private and buisiness SIM cards in one device. Commonly used are DualSIM devices. Very rare are TripleSIM devices.

Multitouch

Multitouch is a method for touchscreens where multiple touches of fingers are processed. For example zooming of a screen portion is possible by touching the display with two fingers and moving them away from each other. Multitouch was first used by Apple for the iPhone

NAS

Network Attached Storage
In the most simple case a harddrive with network port making it available in the lan. The data can by accessed via protocols like SAMBA.

NFC

Near Field Communication
is a transfer standard for short range contactless exchange of data. The transfer is either without connection with RFID tags or with connection between equal transmitters. The connectionless usage is not safe against attacks. The connected solution may be used for payment transactions. The obligatory security functions are implemented in the mobile devices.

OCR

Optical Character Recognition
describes the process to convert text which is used within graphic to real text format. This is e. g. useful to make scanned PDF documents searchable.

PalmOS

PalmOS is an operating system for PDAs and mobile phones which was developed by Palm. It is designed to be operated by touching the screen with a stylus. Programs written for PalmOS do not run directly on its successor WebOS (there is an emulator available).

PDA

Personal Digital Assistant
Devices of this kind substitute addressbook, note pad and much more. They are quite small and can always be carried along. Usually additional programs may be installed. They have an operating system like OS X, Android, PalmOS, Windows Mobile or Symbian. If PDA and mobile phone are combined the result is called "smartphone".

PDC

Personal Digital Cellular Communication
Former 2G mobile telecommunications standard used exclusively in Japan.

PDF

Portable Document Format
File format used to present documents independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems which was published by Adobe in 1993. PDF files may always be shown or printed identically. The best known viewer is the Adobe Reader.

PowerMat

Standard of the Power Matters Alliance for wireless charging. Thus equipped devices may be charged inductively with a compatible charger like an electric toothbrush.

PTT

Push To Talk
is a method of talking on half-duplex communication lines, including two-way radio, using a momentary button to switch from voice reception mode to transmit mode.

Qi

Standard of the Wireless Power Consortium for wireless charging. Qi stands for energy/life force (Chinese "Chi"). Thus equipped devices may be charged inductively with a compatible charger like an electric toothbrush.

SAP

SIM Access Profile
This Bluetooth profile enables a car hands free unit to access a mobile phone's SIM card via Bluetooth. The mobile phone is then in standby consuming only little energy. The access data on the SIM card is used by the car hands free unit to route phone calls over itself and use the car antenna.

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SIM

Subscriber Identity Module
A chip card which is inserted into a mobile device to identify a user within the network. With it mobile operators grant access to their users to telephone- and/or data services. The SIM is a small processor with storage. It may be protected with a changeable PIN. Using the SIM and the IMSI stored on it the mobile device is assigned to a mobile network and authenticated. Additionally it is possible to store address data, notes, last calls, preferred and blocked networks on it.

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SkyyBubbles

Function on Skyynet describing topics by showing an informative speech bubble while doing a mouseover.

SkyyBubbles is based on jQuery Tipped.

Smartphone

These devices combine mobile phones with a pda. They have an operating system like iOS, Android or Windows Phone. They feature an email client, a browser and thousands of applications, called "apps", may be downloaded from an "app store" and used. Most of the times a camera and GPS are built in.

SMS

Short Message Service
This service supports the transmission of 160 character long text messages. Desspite unproportional high costs the networks today earn nearly more money by these than by voice calls.

Tango

was a technology platform from Google which enabled smartphones by the use of cameras to identify their relative position. Thus apps were able to offer indoor-navigation, measurement of real objects and augmented or virtual reality. Tango was discontinued by Google 03/2018.

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Tethering

This describes the connection of a smartphone with a computer to offer the computer an internet connection via a mobile network.

Thuraya

This Satellite communication system of the same named company uses two geosynchrone satellites and can thus only be used in designated regions. The satellites' area of coverage is divided into spotbeams whereas the assignment to the correct spotbeam is done based on the phone's GPS position. On a high transmission powered „Sat-Alert“ channel the phone is alarmed about incoming calls and the user moves to a zone with clear sight to the satellite where the phone logs into the dedicated spotbeam, frequency and timeslot.

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Tizen

Tizen is a free operating system for smartphones, tablets, smartwatches and infotainment devices which is based on Linux. Bada apps may also be used on Tizen. The system is supported by Samsung and Intel.

Touchscreen

Resistive touchscreens have a streched polyester foil with a conductive layer on top of a metal coated glass plate. Small balls keep both layers at distance. If the layers are compressed the controller identifies the coordinates by the voltage drop. Resistive touchscreens do not support multitouch.

Capacitative touchscreens have a glass layer coated with a very thin metal layer over the display. From the corners a low voltage is applied which produces an electrical field. If the user touches the screen this field is grounded. By identifying the current which is discharged by the finger the coordinates are detected by the controller. Thus capacitative screens only respond to conductive objects like metal pens or fingers. Capacitative touchscreens may support multitouch.

Touchstone

Proprietary system of the company Palm for wireless charging. Thus equipped devices may be charged inductively with a compatible charger like an electric toothbrush.

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
This third generation cellular standard (3G) allows a data transfer rate of up to 7.2 Mbit/s. It is the successor of the 2G standard GSM. In October 2000 the UMTS licenses were auctioned in Germany and since 2003 the first German networks are online.

VoIP

Voice over IP
Telephony by internet protocol over computer networks built upon internet standards. Typical information for telephony like voice and control information are send via a network also used for data transfer.

VoLTE

Voice over Long Term Evolution
Telephony by internet protocol over cellular networks built upon the LTE standard. Typical information for telephony like voice and control information are send via the LTE network. As this method was not standardized with LTE mobile phones had to revert to UMTS or GSM when placing calls in the beginning which caused delays while connecting. Since 2015 VoLTE may be used in Germany.

VoWLAN

Voice over WLAN
Voice over wireless LAN is the use of a wireless broadband network according to the IEEE 802.11 standards for vocal conversation. In essence, it is voice over IP (VoIP) over a Wi-Fi network. This is also known as Wi-Fi Calling or WLAN Calling.

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watchOS

watchOS is an operating system for smartwatches which is developed by Apple.

WAP

Wireless Application Protocol
This technique enables the display of simple text and graphics on mobile devices. The language to describe the content is called WML (Wireless Markup Language) and is a highly reduced variant of HTML. WAP pages are no graphically impressive websites but short texts. Today advanced mobile phones and smartphones have made WAP irrelevant.

WearOS

WearOS is an operating system for smartphones. Until March 2018 it was called Android Wear.

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WebOS

WebOS is an operating system for mobile phones which is developed by Palm. It is the successor of PalmOS.

Wi-Fi

Synonym for WLAN. System for wireless radio connections according to IEEE 802.11. Depending on specification different transmission rates from 11-540 MBit/s are supported. Devices like computers, routers & cellular phones can connect to each other in a range of about 100-300ft.

Windows Mobile

Windows Mobile is an operating system for mobile phones which is developed by Microsoft. It is the predecessor of Windows Phone 7. Microsoft calls it Windows Phone Classic by now. It is designed to be operated by touching the screen with a stylus. Programs written for Windows Phone Classic do not run on Windows Phone 7.

Windows Phone

Windows Phone is an operating system for mobile phones which is developed by Microsoft. It is the successor of Windows Phone Classic (formerly known as Windows Mobile). It is operated by touching the screen with one or more fingers (multitouch). Programs written for Windows Phone Classic do not run on Windows Phone.

WiMAX

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access
This fourth generation cellular standard (4G) allows wideband connections according to IEEE-802.16 with data rates of up to 70 MBit/s at a distance of up to 50 km. It is a successor of the 3G standard UMTS

WLAN

Wireless Local Area Network
System for wireless radio connections according to IEEE 802.11. Depending on specification different transmission rates from 11-540 MBit/s are supported. Devices like computers, routers & cellular phones can connect to each other in a range of about 100-300ft.

WLAN 802.11b

Wireless Local Area Network IEEE 802.11b
System for wireless radio connections according to IEEE 802.11b. Supports transmission rates up to 11 MBit/s.

WLAN 802.11g

Wireless Local Area Network IEEE 802.11g
System for wireless radio connections according to IEEE 802.11g. Supports transmission rates up to 54 MBit/s.

WLAN 802.11n

Wireless Local Area Network IEEE 802.11n
System for wireless radio connections according to IEEE 802.11n. Supports transmission rates up to 600 MBit/s by using multiple input- and output antennas. This is also known as MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output).

WLAN 802.11ac

Wireless Local Area Network IEEE 802.11ac
System for wireless radio connections according to IEEE 802.11ac. Supports transmission rates up to 1 GBit/s by using multiple input- and output antennas. This is also known as MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output).

WLAN 802.11ad

Wireless Local Area Network IEEE 802.11ad
System for wireless radio connections according to IEEE 802.11ad. Also called Wireless Gigabit (WiGig) or Multiple Gigabit Wireless System (MGWS). Supports transmission rates of multiple GBit/s but only short range of a few meters. Thus USB 3.0, HDMI or PCI-Express may be wirelessly transferred.

WOFF

Web Open Font Format
This compacted data format for fonts is supported by all modern browsers and supports the use of fonts which are not installed on the user's computer on websites. WOFF supports fonts which are stored in the format OpenType or TrueType.

YunOS

YunOS or Aliyun OS is a chinese Linux based operating system for smartphones which focusses on cloud functions instead of downloadable apps. Is has some Android frameworks which permits some Android apps to be used.

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